Sladen's Suspect Guides

Unfinished and probably full of errors.

Open Systems Interconnect OSI Stack

      7 Application    HTTP
      6 Presentation   SSL/TLS
      5 Session        RPC/Portmapper, NVT
      4 Transport      TCP, UDP, SPX
      3 Network        IP, ICMP, ARP, HDLC, IPX
        Logical Link   802.2 LLC
      2	Data Link      MAC, Ethernet, Token Ring, ATM, FDDI
      1 Physical       SDH, SONET
                       Copper, Fibre and Repeaters etc

Connection Speeds

      E  	`Euro'  (2.0Mb base)
      J		`Japan' (1.5Mb base)
      T  	`Trunk' (1.5Mb base)
      DS	Digital Signal   (1.5Mb base)
      OC	Optical Carrier  (51Mb base)
      STM	Synchronous Transport Mode  (51Mb base)
      STS	Synchronous Transport Signal  (155Mb base)
      STS c	Synchronous Transport Signal Concatenated
      DS0 x 32 = E1 x 4 =           E2 x 4 = E3 x 4 = E4 x 4 = E5
      64         2.048              8.448    34.368   139.264  564.992
      DS0 x 24 = T1 x 2 = T1c x 2 = T2 x 7 = T3 x 6 = T4
      64         1.544    3.152     6.312    44.736   274.176
      DS0 x 24 = J1 x 4 =           J2 x 5 = J3 x 3 = J4 x 4 = J5
      64         1.544              6.312    32.064   97.728   397.200
      DS0	56kb		(in-band signalling)
      DS0	64kb		(out-of-band signalling)
      ISDN-B	64kb		(out-of-band signalling)
      ISDN-BRI	144kb
      ISDN-H0	384kb
      ISDN-PRI	1.536Mb		(192bits @ 8kHz)
      T1	1.544Mb
      DS1	1.544Mb 	(24xDS0 + 8kb framing)
      E1	2.048Mb 2.048	(32xDS0)
      Ethernet	3Mb	2.940?	(AUI/DIX)
      DS1c	3.1Mb	3.152

      DS2	6.3Mb	6.312
      T2	6.3Mb
      E2	8Mb	8.448
      Ethernet	10Mb	10.000

      DS3*	32Mb	32.064	(where is this used?)
      E3	34Mb	34.368
      Video	34Mb		(digitally-encoded 6Mhz/channel analogue television)
      DS3	45Mb	44.736
      T3	45Mb
      OC1	51Mb	51.840
      STS1	51Mb		(SONET building block, )
      DS4?	98Mb	97.728
      J4	98	97.728
      Ethernet	100Mb	100.000
      FDDI	125Mb

      E4	140Mb	139.264
      ATM	155Mb	149.760
      OC3	155Mb	155.520
      STM1	155Mb		(150.336Mb payload. SDH building block: 270 x 9 = 2430 octets @ 8kHz)
      STS3c	155Mb
      T4	274Mb	274.176
      J5	397Mb	397.200
      J1	1.5
      J2	6.3	6.312
      J3	32	32.064

      E5	565Mb	565.148
      ATM	622Mb	599.040
      OC12	622Mb	622.080
      STM4	622Mb		(601.344 Mb payload)
      STS12	622Mb

      GigE	1Gb	1000.000 (1250.000 Carrier with 5/4 encoding)

      ATM	2.4Gb	2396.160
      OC48	2.552Gb	2488.320
      STM16	2.522Gb		 (2405.376Mb payload)
      STS48	2.552Gb

      OC192  	10Gb

G.702 Hierarchical bit rates

Digital Hierarchy T1 based E1 based J1 based
0 64 Kb (56Kb) 64 Kb 64 Kb
1 1,544 Kb 2,048 Kb 1,544 Kb
2 6,312 Kb 8,448 Kb 6,312 Kb
3 44,736 Kb 34,368 Kb 32,064 Kb
4 274,176 Kb 139,264 Kb 97,728 Kb
5 565,148 Kb 397,200 Kb

      International Numbering Plan for the ISDN Era (14 digits)

      SDH Bit-Rates

      SDH Physical Interface

      SDH Structured Frame Format

      STM-n Transport

      PCM Voice Codeing

      IEEE 802.2
      LLC Logical Link Control

      IEEE 802.3
      CSMA/CD Ethernet

      IEEE 802.5
      Token Ring

      IEEE 802.11
      CSMA/CA Wireless Ethernet

      IEEE P996.1
      PC/104 Embedded Platform

      ISO 9314

      Serial Interface Characteristics

      DTE<->DCE Synchronous Interface

      DTE<->DCE Packet Switching over a Dedicated Circuit


      2B1Q	2 Binary, 1 Quad
      4B/5B	4 Bit -> 5 Bit
      ATM	Asynchronous Transfer Mode
      DWDM	Dense Wave Division Multiplexing
      FR	Frame Relay
      HDLC      High-level Data Link Control
      HDSL	High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line
      ISDN	Integrated Services Digital Network
        B	Bearer Channel (64kb)
        D	Data Channel (16kb / 64kb)
        H0	`High-bit-rate'? Channel (384kb == 6B)
        H10	`High-bit-rate'? Channel (1,472kb == 23B)
        H11	`High-bit-rate'? Channel (1,536kb == 24B)
      		(is this T1 in E1?)
        H12	`High-bit-rate'? Channel (1.920kb == 30B
        BRI	Basic Rate Interface (2B+1D@16kb)
        PRI	Primary Rate Interface (23B+1D@64kb / 30B+1D@64kb)
      LLC       Logical Link Control  (HDLC over Ethernet etc)
      PDH	Plesyocronous Digital Hierarchy (almost Synchronous)
      PVC	Permanent Virtual Connection
      RAS	Remote Access Server
      SDH	Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
      SONET	Synchronous Optical NETwork


      CSU	Customer/Channel Service Unit
      CAS	Channel Associated Signalling
      CCIS	Common Channel Interoffice Signalling
      CSS	Common Channel Signalling
      DTMF	Discrete Tone Multi-Frequency (Dialling)
      DOCSIS    Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification
      MELCAS	Mercury Exchange Line Channel Associated Signalling
      SS7	Signalling System 7

IP Internet Protocol Suite

      ARP	Address Resolution Protocol
      BGP4	Border Gate Protocol version 4
      BOOTP	Boot Protocol
      CIDR	Classless Inter-Domain Routeing
      DHCP	Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
      DNS	Domain Name Service
      ECN	Explicit Congestion Notification
      GRE	Generic Routeing Encapsulation
      ICMP	Internet Control Messaging Protocol
      IGMP	Internet Group Messenging Protocol
      OSPF	Open Shortest Path First
      NVT	Network Virtual Terminal
      RADIUS	Remote Access Dial In User Service
      RIP	Routeing Information Protocol
      SNMP	Simple Network Management Protocol
      SMTP	Simple Message Transfer Protocol
      TCP	Transport Control Protocol
      UDP	User Datagram Protocol


      CTS	Clear To Send
      DTR	Data Terminal Ready
      EIA-232	19200,
      RS-232	9600, 5volts?
      HSSI	High Speed Serial Interface
      RS-432	2-wire?

LAN Local Area Network

      802.11	Wireless Ethernet @ 11Mbps
      AUI	Attachment Unit Interface
      CSMA/CD	Carrier Sense, Multiple Access / Collision Detection (Ethernet)
      DIX	DEC Intel Xerox—the horrible slider!
      FDDI	Fibre Distributed Data Interconnect
      GigE	Gigabit Ethernet
      LAN	Local Area Network
      MAC	Media Access Control
      N base M	Speed (Mhz);  Baseband;  Physcial Media
      3base2	"Experiemental" 3Mb Thick Coax with "Vampire" Taps
      10base2	"Cheapnet" 50Ω RG-58? with BNC.
      100baseFL	Dual Fibre
      100baseT	"Fast Ethernet" 802.3u, 4 Twisted Pairs (Cat5)
      1000baseT	"GigE" 4 Twisted Pairs (Cat5e)

LAN Encodings

      10baseX	Manchester Encoding (MPE), 20.00Mhz Carrier
      100baseX	4B/5B, MLT3 and Feedback Shift Register (FSR), 125Mhz, 31.25Mhz
      FDDI	4B/5B, MLT3, 125Mhz, 31.25Mhz
      1000baseX	Fibre Channel 8B/10B, 1.25Ghz
      1000baseT	PAM5, 4 pairs, 125Mhz.
      TokenRing	Differential Manchester Encoding (DME), 8Mhz, 32Mhz?


      Bandwidth		Data Payload measured in Bits per second.

Q & A

What's the difference between a Class C and a /24 ?
Class C simple refers to the top three bits on the address being 110, as in Class A, Class B and Class C.
What's the difference between a Hub and a Repeater ?
Ten years and a few more ports. (credit to JR).
What's the difference between a Switch and a Bridge ?
Ten years and a few more ports! ;-) Though these days, things tend to operate at wire-speed aswell.
What will the following command do? ``su - -c rm -rf ''?
Return an error
What does ``cp a*'' do?

SMTP in a Nutshell$ telnet 53
Connected to
Escape character is '^]'.
220 ESMTP Sendmail 8.11.6/8.11.6; Tue, 11 Jun 2002 21:22:36 +0100
250 Hello [], pleased to meet you
502 5.3.0 Sendmail 8.11.6 -- HELP not implemented
250 2.1.0 <>... Sender ok
250 2.1.5 <>... Recipient ok
250 2.1.5 <>... Recipient ok
354 Enter mail, end with "." on a line by itself
From: A Spammer <>
Subject: Manual SMTP Groking

Ha ha, I've taken over your computer!!
I'm a real l33t h4x0r.
250 2.0.0 g1ABCD234567 Message accepted for delivery
221 2.0.0 closing connection
Connection closed by foreign host.

HTTP in a Nutshell

starsky:/home/sladen# telnet 80
Connected to
Escape character is '^]'.
GET / HTTP/1.0

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Mon,  2 Apr 1984 17:02:53 PST
Server: Apache/1.3.9 (Unix) Debian/GNU PHP/4.0.3pl1
Last-Modified: Sun,  1 Apr 1984 11:02:52 PST
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Content-Length: 173
Connection: close
Content-Type: text/html; charset=iso-8859-1

    <title>My Website</title>
  <body bgcolor="white">
    <p>Hello World!


Ethernet Frame

+-------+------+-------+---+---+--/ /-+
|DestSAP|SrcSAP|Control|OUI|PID| Data |
+-------+------+-------+---+---+-/ /--+
    1      1       1     3   2  0-1492

                              \                 \
+------------------------------+-------/ /------+-----+
|Preample|Magic|Dest|Src|Length| Data + Padding	| CRC |
+--------+-----+----+---+------+------/ /-------+-----+
    7       1    6    6	   2	    46 - 1500      4

Interesting IPv4 address ranges	Unspecified / any / default route	Classic Class A networks (/8)	rfc1918 private address space	HAM Radio Data Communication	localhost	Classic Class B networks (/16)	APNIC ("Conferences and exhibitions; temporary assignments")	DHCP Automatic Private IP Addressing	rfc1918 private address space (16x /16)	Classic Class C networks (/24)	Reserved for technical documentation	rfc3068 6to4 anycast relay routers	rfc1918 private address space	rfc2544 benchmarking (formerly Harvard)	Classic Class D addresses (multicast) rfc3171	Broadcast-local Routeing/Discovery	RIP Routeing Information Protocol	NTP Network Time Protocol	NetBIOS/Wins Broadcast (?)	Classic Class E address space (experimental)	local [non-routed] broadcast

Interesting IPv6 address ranges

	::				Unspecified
	::1				Loopback
	::		IPv4-in-6 IPv4 only stack
	::ffff:		IPv4-in-6 IPv4/IPv6 dual stack
	0400::/7			"IPX" ;-)
	2001::/16			Global Unicast allocation #1!
	2002::/16			6to4 prefix
	3ffe::/16			6Bone (experimental) rfc2471
	4000::/3			Provider Specific Unicast
	8000::/3			(? intended aggregatable global unicast)
	fe80::/10			rfc1884 Link Local (localhost 127/8 equivalent)
	fec0::/10			rfc1884 Site Local (rfc1918 equivalent)
	ff00::/8			Multicast (including `broadcast')
	ff0x::43			NTP Multicast
	ff0x::1				All Nodes
	ff0x::2				All Routers
	ff02::c				DHCP Multicast
	ff02:0:0:0:0:1:ff00::/104	Solicated Node Multicast

IPv6 Provisional Aggregatable Global Unicast addressing

	 3 bits		Format Prefix
	13 bits		TLA
	 8 bits		Reserved for TLA/NLA sideways expansion
	24 bits		NLA
	16 bits		SLA /48 (Site Subnets)
	64 bits		Interface Identifier (EUI-64)

EUI-64 / IEEE 802 MAC addresses

	 6 bits		Company Identifier (high)
	 1 bit		"u" Universial = 0, local = 1 (inverted for IPv6)
	 1 bit		"g" Group = 1, Indivual = 0 (?)
	16 bit		Company Identifier (high)
	[ 16 bits ]	[ "0xff 0xfe" inserted to transform to MAC-48 -> EUI-64 ]
	24 bits		Vendor Allocated Device Identifier

Querying DNS Bind version

$ dig txt chaos version.bind