Running Multiple Server enviroments on a single machine sharing a single kernel.
We want to run several indepentant virtual servers on a machine
(single physical piece of hardware). The technologies around for
doing this are the BSD
jail() call, vmware which runs
x86, Bochs, which acts as a full
PC emulator, UML (User-Mode-Linux, multiple kernels) and vserver.
There have been two approachs to create virtual server type environments out there;
FreeVSD provides a reasonable virtual environment that is
particularly well suited to the reseller market. This is done by
allocating a range of user and group IDs (uid gid) one of which is
a psuedo-root user called `admin'. This user is treated no
different from a normal user by the underlaying kernel or
operating system. The difference however comes in the provision
of patched versions of ultities such as
kill(1) that analyse the userid and allow the
use of privileged operations upon other file or processes
belonging to that virtual servers process range.
FreeVSD has also provided us with something much more useful--a daemon and defined communication protocol, for which there exist both open Web-based and a proprietary Microsoft Windows based client.
The alternate approach is modifying the kernel to provide a partition-like environment and is based on cutting down privileges to what is safe (eg. no hardware or system-management related filesystem or kernel access). Because this requires no modifications to the userspace system we can run out-of-the-box images of Redhat and Debian, even quiet happily besides each other on the same host system.
SW-Soft from Russia. Need to write now I have seen the code.
We achieve the virtualization of multiple seperate virtual machines on a single host by combining several technologies; the first is a series of extra kernel calls, some of which are now provided through the vserver kernel patches produces by Jacques.
Restrict the Filesystem
This is the classical call that you are all familar with,
it is used to start programs in a part of the filesystem and
never be able to exit that area again. This is basically what
Restrict IP space
(which IP addresses you can use or
Restrict Process space
We have a number of `contexts' on the machines, processes within one context cannot interact, control or modify those in an other context.
Give up kernel and hardware related capabliities.
Our root user gives up the rights to
and kernel calls related to direct kernel or hardware control
that could allow escaping out of our autonomous environment or
for instance modifying data on a hard-disk directly resulting
in privilege elevation.
/dev/pts and IPC
Make things a little more private.
To make a profitable system that we can sell we need to look at what DSVR have done; they not produced a system that is a truely completely representation of virtual server or dedicated machine; but that they have produced something that is good enough and that closely cators and exceeds the requirements of most resellers.
It is this four-level pyramid system that allows us to keep focused upon technical provision and seperating the support chain so that end-users are dealt with through the reseller chain.